Types of concrete and its characteristics
Types of concrete
Knowing the types of concrete and how their compositions and applications are different can help project managers to use the best type of concrete. Concrete is an entirely diverse material that serves a wide range of construction purposes. From large commercial buildings to roads, concrete is abundant around us.
The type of concrete you choose has a significant impact on the success of the project. Needless to say, choosing the right type of concrete for any construction is very important. So, let’s see what kinds of concrete are included.
Different types of concrete
Each type of concrete has common compounds, including cement, water and aggregates (sand). However, a number of different materials are used to add different properties to concrete to be used for different applications. However, concrete is divided into the following types:
1.Concrete with normal strength Plain / ordinary concrete
With a ratio of 1, 2, 4, this concrete has all the constituents of concrete. It takes about 30 to 90 minutes to set, but it depends on the climatic conditions of the project site and the characteristics of the cement.
Normal-strength concrete is typically used for sidewalks or buildings that do not require high tensile strength. This concrete is not suitable for other applications because it does not withstand the pressures of wind loads or vibrations caused by earthquakes.
Another type of concrete that is widely used in modern industry and construction is reinforced concrete. The tensile strength of concrete increases with the placement of reinforcements (rebars) in the concrete. Recently, engineers have been using fibres instead of rebar to reinforce concrete.
These reinforcements resist tensile forces while the concrete itself continues to withstand compressive forces. Rebar and concrete form a strong bond, and as a result, the two materials jointly resist different forces. In essence, they become a single structural element.
Many large projects use prestressed concrete units. Prestressed concrete is created using a special technique, such as reinforced concrete containing rods or tendons. But these rods or tendons are pressed before the concrete is applied.
When the concrete is mixed and ready to be poured, these rods are placed inside the concrete member. When the concrete is set (hardening of the concrete), these rods are pressed. This process makes the lower part of the concrete member stronger against tensile forces.
Typically, prestressed units are created and assembled on site. Prestressed concrete is used to build stairs, heavy structures or roofs with long spans.
Prefabricated concrete is another type of concrete that is made in the factory according to the exact specifications. Prefabricated concrete units are then transported and assembled. Prefabricated concrete is used for concrete blocks, prefabricated walls, parking lots, underground tunnels and more.
The advantage of using prefabricated concrete is the assembly of parts on site, increasing the speed of project completion and less labour. Because prefabricated concrete units are manufactured in the factory, they are of very high quality.
Lightweight concrete is any type of concrete with a density of less than 1920 kg per cubic meter. Lightweight concrete is made using lightweight aggregates. Lightweight aggregates are materials that reduce the specific gravity of concrete. These aggregates have very low thermal conductivity (heat transfer).
Light aggregates include natural materials such as pumice and synthetic materials such as expanded clay and shale or processed materials such as vermiculite and perlite. Common uses for lightweight concrete include building bridge decks for tall spans and building blocks. It can also be used to protect metal structures from heat and fire.
High-density concrete is another type of concrete. This concrete is often used in the construction of nuclear power plants. The heavy aggregates used to make high-density concrete help concrete members withstand core radiation.
In this concrete, crushed stones are used. Barite is a colourless or white substance composed of barium sulfate. Barite is the main ingredient in barium; Barium is a crushed rock that is most used in high-density concrete.
This concrete has been created as an alternative to ready-mixed concrete to solve the problem of long distances between the concrete plant and construction sites. This concrete is needed to transport trucks known as truck mixers.
Volumetric concrete is instrumental when the builder needs two different types of concrete mix in one place. Volumetric concrete has many applications in large places, underground structures and several projects that require different types of concrete.
Some types of concrete, such as aerated concrete, hold billions of microscopic air cells per cubic foot. These tiny air pockets relieve the internal pressure on the concrete. They provide small containers that can expand when water freezes.
Air is created by adding various foaming agents such as alcohols, resins or fatty acids during the mixing process in concrete. This must be done under close engineering supervision as the concrete is mixed and poured at the workplace. This air reduces the volume of concrete by about 3 to 6%.
Quickly adjustable concrete can be used for quick completion of the project or concreting in cold weather. This concrete has a faster setting and setting time and is very resistant to low temperatures, so quick-setting concrete can be used at any time of the year.
This is especially useful in winter when the cold weather does not allow you to use other types of concrete. For the fast setting of concrete, special additives based on calcium chloride or sodium nitrate are used.
10.Smart concrete Smart concrete
One type of concrete that is the future of technology is called smart concrete. This concrete is a different way to monitor the construction conditions of reinforced concrete structures. Short carbon fibres are added to the concrete using a conventional mixer. At this time, pressure resistance affects the electrical resistance of concrete.
This type of concrete can be used to diagnose possible problems before concrete breaks down. This method is perfect because it detects microstructural defects. Although not yet widely used worldwide! But it promises future building materials for cities at risk of earthquakes.
11.Glass reinforced concrete
Another form of concrete is a type of glass that uses recycled glass. This form of concrete is used when the aesthetic appearance is one of the important elements in concrete design. This concrete, commonly used in decorative facades, can have glossy or coloured glass embedded during the mixing process to give it a distinct colour or shine.
Porous concrete is one of the most common types of concrete used to build roads and pavements. This concrete is designed to deal with storm runoff problems and water pools and ditches on roads or runways.
Projects that use porous concrete have fewer problems with hydroplaning, rubber spraying, and snow accumulation. It also reduces the need for marginal and storm sewers. This concrete is composed of a mixture of cement, water and coarse aggregates. This concrete lacks sand to create an open-scale porous structure. This allows water to pass easily through the layers.
This type of concrete is often used on roads, airport runways, highways, parking lots and sidewalks. In fact, asphalt concrete is used wherever pavement is needed. Asphalt is a dark mineral composed of a mixture of hydrocarbons called bitumen.
This concrete is made from a combination of aggregates and asphalt. Asphalt is known for durability, efficiency, slip resistance, stability, fatigue resistance, flexibility and impermeability.
14.Polymer concrete Polymer concrete
Polymer concrete is made from a mixture of an epoxy binder, water and aggregates. While the most common mixtures used in the production of polymer concrete include vinyl ester, polyester and normal epoxy, other types of polymer resins may be used in the manufacture of this concrete.
Polymer concrete is much safer and more durable than ordinary concrete due to its properties and is used in various construction projects. Due to its durability and high resistance to various types of corrosion, it is an ideal material for industrial and electrical construction projects.
We introduced the types of concrete above; now you can choose the concrete you want according to the type of your project. The list of types of concrete is increasing year by year, and the reason for this is related to the increasing use of applications in modern
society. However, concrete is a material that can be used to create mixtures with different materials.